The rise of over-the-top (OTT) players coupled with the exponential growth in demand for digital video content has resulted in piracy of online content becoming one of the most significant risks to content creators, providers, broadcasters, and operators. The technologies of digital rights management (DRM) and conditional access system (CAS) are of little use in the event that content is leaked after being decrypted. Forensic watermarking of video information is an excellent approach that can be utilised in situations like these. Despite the fact that video watermarking systems are unable to stop piracy entirely, they do allow content companies to identify instances of it and pursue legal action against those responsible.
The process of forensic watermarking involves inserting data that has already been defined (often a string of characters or a code) into individual media pieces. It is impossible to obscure, modify, or wipe this data without causing unacceptable damage to the host media itself, which makes it difficult to do any of those things. This ensures that the data are carried together with the media across the entirety of its distribution network and copy processes. In many cases, information about the content’s distributor or subscriber is included in the chain of distribution as an embedded file. The copyright information is extracted from the data that has been watermarked in the event that the content is pirated or redistributed. This allows for the source of the piracy to be located, at which point the appropriate measures can be taken. Methods of information extraction are referred to as “non-blind” when the original content must be used, “informed” when only some of the information is necessary, and “blind” when the original content is not required at all. Blind extractions are the most straightforward to implement, however non-blind techniques boost the efficiency of the mark because they ensure that pirates are unable to access the unmodified version of the content.
Once the source of the leakage has been identified by using the operator or subscriber mark of video watermarking, multiple sets of actions can be taken to prevent further leakages, as well as use and further distribution of illegal video content. These actions can be taken against the use of illegal video content. In order to arrive at a choice that is well-informed, one strategy is to use the information that was stolen to determine the location, frequency, and timing of the theft. Additionally, billing systems can be connected with this data in order to spot unusual transactions. An operator could then instantly take down the broadcast that was infringing, and individuals who were suspected of piracy may either have their access restricted or have their accounts suspended. Taking legal action against illegal users is the final step in this process. In addition, some content owners utilise manual identification or content fingerprinting in order to identify instances of infringement that occur on the internet. After that, take-down tools and notices are distributed to the appropriate parties, which may include ISPs and CDNs.